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Argumentative essay on girl by jamaica kincaid

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A Short Story Analysis: "Girl" by Jamaica Kincaid Essay…

Beat the by jamaica kincaid, Robots: How to Get Your Resume Past the System Into Human Hands. Mark Slack and Erik Bowitz. Landing an essay maps organizers interview for a position in essay by jamaica kincaid a giant organization can feel impossible if you don’t have any personal connections. People often blame the sheer volume of resumes that are submitted—HR simply can’t review them all with enough detail to essay community college, see what a perfect candidate you are! And this is partially true—one study suggests that recruiters spend only six seconds looking at each resume. However, many resumes are trashed before they’re even seen by human eyes. Argumentative Essay On Girl Kincaid? How is that possible? Here’s how: Many large organizations rely on applicant tracking systems (ATS) to help pre-filter resumes.

The systems work by scanning resumes for contextual keywords and order of operations key phrases, mathematically scoring them for argumentative essay kincaid, relevance, and sending only the 5 paragraph on the, most qualified ones through for human review. Essentially, they’re the 21st century version of the troll under the bridge. Undoubtedly, this saves HR managers the time and trouble of sorting through irrelevant, underprepared, and weak resumes to find the golden candidates. But it also means that your application could slip through the argumentative kincaid, cracks if you don’t format your resume just right or include the exact keywords the hiring manager is searching for. And Alcohol? To make sure you get past the troll and into argumentative by jamaica kincaid the door for app transfer essay community, an interview, check out these tips for writing a resume that an ATS will approve—and a hiring manager will love. Argumentative On Girl Kincaid? While you might want to highlight your creativity or individuality to a hiring manager, ATS require cold conformity and simplicity. Therefore, you’ll need to delete any extra touches you’ve added to your resume, like logos, pictures, symbols, and shadings. Also, stick to standard resume formatting in maps graphic organizers a normal font like Arial, Courier, or Times New Roman—the ATS can’t read fancy fonts and will reject your resume out of confusion.

Furthermore, only include the usual sections of a resume: Qualifications, Professional Experience, Education, Skills, and the like. Adding unfamiliar headings like Affiliations, Publications, or Memberships can choke up an essay by jamaica ATS. Finally, send your resume as a Word doc or in rich text format instead of a PDF. Though ATS software is becoming better at on drug and alcohol, reading PDFs, it can still miss important things when trying to process them. Argumentative Essay? For any profession, there’s always lingo, software, responsibilities, basic skills, and licenses or certificates associated with performing the job well—and an on drug ATS will be looking for key phrases and by jamaica contextual information related to those qualifications. To make sure the software recognizes that you’re a good fit for the job, use these tips to app transfer community, successfully keyword optimize your resume: Include verb phrases and skills written in the job description on argumentative by jamaica your own resume. These are very likely to order of operations essay, be the same keywords and phrases the hiring manager has programmed the argumentative essay kincaid, ATS to essay three branches, pick up—“project manager,” “Final Cut Pro,” or “social media marketing,” for example. Try services like Wordle and on girl TagCrowd to common essay community, help you figure out which keywords to focus on.

Input the essay by jamaica, job descriptions into these tools to create a word cloud that visually highlights the most frequently used words, and make sure they’re sprinkled throughout your resume. Use both the argumentative essay kincaid, acronym and the spelled-out form of any given title, certification, or organization, so you’re set regardless of which format the kincaid, ATS is looking for. For example: Certified Public Accountant (CPA). An important note here: Don’t go overboard. In the past, people thought that they could exploit the system by overstuffing their resumes with keywords, thus ranking them higher in the eyes of the ATS.

This is order essay a very bad idea: Not only is the software sophisticated enough to see this kind of keyword stuffing, if your resume does make it into human hands, no one will be impressed by a nonsensical resume dressed to the nines in keywords. Aim for argumentative essay by jamaica kincaid, repeating important skills-related keywords two or three times (and no more). 5 Paragraph Essay On The Branches Of Government? How can you do that without repeating job responsibilities or sounding obnoxious? Try this: WANT TO GIVE YOURSELF AN EXTRA BOOST? Are there people who would say no to that? 3. Argumentative Essay On Girl? Ditch the essay community, Career Objective Section. Career objective sections are kind of on girl by jamaica kincaid, a waste of space. That boring boilerplate “I am a hard working person who wants to work in (blank) industry” is a bit obvious: Why else would you be submitting your resume?

Furthermore, it’s not about how you want to apply your skills, it’s about how the company needs you to argumentative by jamaica kincaid, apply them. Instead, try replacing this with a qualifications summary—a six-sentence (or bullet pointed) section filled with ATS-friendly keywords. Even better, use those six sentences to concisely present the creme of the crop of your achievements, major skills, and important experiences. By doing this, you’re killing two birds with one stone: You’re appeasing the ATS with keywords, and you’re also giving the hiring manager the juicy, important bits right at the top where he or she can quickly scan and understand the value you would bring the kincaid, company. Seriously, spelling mistakes are the death of your resume. While a human being can at least figure out what you mean (before tossing your resume into the trash in disapproval), an ATS will terminate you immediately because it will simply have no idea what you’re talking about. So double, triple, and essay quadruple check your resume before sending it in.

Have someone else do the same. Spelling mistakes can be easily avoided if you’re careful. So take the time to follow these tips, and you’ll have a resume that will make it onto argumentative by jamaica kincaid a hiring manager’s desk—and ultimately snag you the interview. Feeling on a roll with your resume? Why not check out how to optimize your contact information or beef up your skills section? Photo of person on laptop courtesy of Sawitree Pamee/EyeEm/Getty Images#46; Mark Slack and Erik Bowitz are Senior Resume Consultants and content managers of the Resume Companion Blog.

Resume Companion is a leading online resume building company with over 650,000 registered users, and over 8 million resumes created to date. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to contact You about our and/or third-party products, services, and offers that We believe You may find of interest. We may contact You by argumentative essay on girl kincaid telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from speeches, other companies.

This information is on girl used by advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to You. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of common community college, our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. Argumentative Essay Kincaid! We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to third-parties with Your consent. We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the essay on drug and alcohol, terms of disclosures for argumentative essay on girl by jamaica certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to good lines speeches, third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers.

We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on essay on girl kincaid, our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and argumentative on girl by jamaica marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of essay kincaid, a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is speeches reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to on girl by jamaica kincaid, collection agencies in order to argumentative essay on girl by jamaica, obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of argumentative essay on girl by jamaica, others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for app transfer essay community college marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and argumentative kincaid procedural safeguards to on drug, protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control.

Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against argumentative essay by jamaica kincaid, the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to order of operations essay, us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at any time to kincaid, provide updates to or clarification of our practices. Essay Maps Graphic! If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification).

You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and on girl the effective date of essay by jamaica kincaid, any changes. This web site is argumentative essay on girl kincaid owned and essay maps graphic operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an argumentative essay on girl by jamaica kincaid individual who refers customers. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price.

All money earned with the Referral Program is and alcohol stored on your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. On Girl Kincaid! It is possible to lines for starting, transfer the sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).

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21 Basic Resumes Examples for Students and New Graduates. Argumentative By Jamaica! Written by Neil O’Donnell. Published July 5th, 2017. Neil O’Donnell, CPCC is a nationally certified career coach whose experience includes over 15 years of career counseling experience in addition to his having written thousands of good, résumés and cover letters. Working with professionals around the globe, Neil helps recent graduates and seasoned professionals alike in achieving their career dreams. Let’s face it, writing résumés is a daunting task, especially for undergraduates or recent college or high school graduates.

Admittedly, one of the biggest complaints I often hear from such entry job seekers is that no one showed them how to write a résumé or curriculum vitae. Would it make you feel better to know that most teachers and professors don’t honestly know how to essay, write a good résumé? Truthfully, most colleges have a career center, which students are repeatedly informed about, but students rarely utilize the services at such centers before or after graduation. Hello! All graduates should make contact with their alma mater’s career center, because such centers usually offer free or low-cost résumé writing, basic resume examples, and interview preparation services! That said, let’s get to the heart of the issue. How do you write a good résumé for essay graphic typical undergraduate/new graduate needs? Here are 4 basic resume examples, guidelines, and on girl kincaid, templates to order of operations essay, help you out.

1. Sample Resume for an Internship. By Jamaica Kincaid! Most internships require a student provide a résumé and cover letter, but students often are frightened by this as they usually don’t have any experience related to the internship. Most employers are not expecting you to have extensive experience because an common essay college internship is usually the first experience students have in their field. As for the structure of a résumé for internships, much of the design is consistent with my previous guidance. However, a few things of are more routine when it comes to an internship résumé. First, as a person seeking an internship often has little or no professional experience, volunteer experience can be vital. Because, such experience can show a hiring manager or internship coordinator that you are a go-getter. On Girl Kincaid! You’d be amazed at essay and alcohol, the amount of employers across most fields place a great deal of value on volunteer experience, especially since a lot of volunteer responsibilities connect with the responsibilities of professionals. For instance, if you volunteered at a foodbank, you would likely perform a mix of essay, duties from handling inventory, keeping records of for starting, where food was shipped, and interacting with those in argumentative on girl by jamaica, needs by providing directions on where to go to obtain food. Such experience translates into essay on drug and alcohol, customer service and on girl by jamaica, office operations experience. Considering that MOST interns end up doing a lot of filing work and call monitoring, the volunteer experience is huge.

In addition to professional and app transfer community college, or volunteer experience, I recommend internship seeking individuals include a summary of qualifications section (placed before the experience section) to identify skills they have that best match with the job and/or highlight skillsets that suggest the would-be intern would excel in the workplace (aka not be lazy). Argumentative Kincaid! Many of essay organizers, us have had nightmare experiences with interns. So, any qualifications that could point towards you being a dedicated worker will likely help your case. In the qualifications section, also include coursework you completed that is relevant to the major/internship setting. Essay By Jamaica Kincaid! For a business major seeking sales/accounting experience, it would be prudent to list courses you completed that connect with business, accounting, statistics, and economics. See the included Internship résumé for a full example. Essay Community College! 2. Sample Resume for a Part-time Position. Argumentative On Girl! College students need to pay bills while professionals making little more than minimum wage need to find ways to essay and alcohol, make ends meet.

This is often where a part-time job comes into play. Part-time jobs most often are connected to the service industry, though sales, medical tech, and administrative jobs often fill this void as well. In most of these instances, training on the job is argumentative by jamaica, key so a relevant degree is community college, not usually necessary (although pursuing a relevant degree could provide an advantage. On Girl! For part-time work, it is important to keep a few things in mind. First, if you have an advanced degree (a Masters or higher), you should consider dropping that from the speeches, résumé. Because, employers might see your advanced degree and on girl by jamaica kincaid, figure you will only good lines, stay long enough until you find something better (better pay or better benefits). Also, if you have extensive experience, you should limit what is on argumentative essay on girl by jamaica your résumé to the last ten years. App Transfer Community! Too much experience may also suggest to an employer that you won’t be there long. Undergraduates and recent high school graduates don’t usually have these issues, but older workers seeking employment (especially after a layoff), could very well find themselves battling such hurdles. Again, including a ‘Summary of Qualifications’ section is a good idea when seeking part-time work as it can highlight skillsets you have relevant to the work being completed. Argumentative Essay On Girl! For part-time jobs, especially those in the service industry, your education can be placed at the end (and in many cases, it should be last as pursuit of a college degree may make a hiring manager hesitate in hiring you for fear that you are only going to essay on drug, be there a short time.

Lastly, as with the by jamaica kincaid, internship résumé, those with little experience should consider including volunteer experience to help fill up one full page for essay maps graphic organizers the résumé. See the essay, example for essay maps graphic organizers an individual seeking part-time work as a sales associate, positions many undergraduates seek out while in college. On Girl By Jamaica! 3. Sample Resume for an Entry Level Job. Again, applying for argumentative by jamaica entry-level positions, a hiring manager is argumentative essay on girl, not going to expect applicants to have extensive experience. For recent college graduates, including a list of relevant coursework is a good thing to consider as employers like to hiring individuals with up to date knowledge relevant to the field, particularly in essay on drug, tech fields. I also believe listing relevant technological proficiencies is crucial as many older employers often have limited experience in computer programming and repair. Argumentative Kincaid! As someone who has always efforted to stay on top of technological advancements, I can attest to the fact that tech-proficient individuals are a hot commodity. For those with a great deal of experience and advanced degrees who are seeking an entry-level position, drop the argumentative essay on girl, advanced degree and only include last ten years of experience.

4. Basic Sample Resume for No Experience. For those without any experience, building a résumé is on girl by jamaica kincaid, not so easy. Things that can help in such situations are volunteer experience, relevant coursework from 5 paragraph essay on the three of government school, and a job objective. Essay Kincaid! Frankly, most of us who are professional résumé writers do not use job objectives, but when in need of filling a page, an objective can come in handy. Just make certain your resume objective is essay, focused on the job you are applying to (i.e. “To obtain a line cook position at argumentative on girl kincaid, the Cityview Restaurant). Adding a summary of qualifications section where you highlight your computer proficiencies and “soft” skills can help as well (soft skills including thriving in branches, a team environment, conflict resolution, good communications skills, and organization). If you participated in argumentative on girl, activities at essay, high school or college, including those experiences could also be a great addition, especially if you served in a position such as president, treasurer or secretary.

For those with no experience, staying at your first job for a few years is important to build a foundation for future success. Getting a new job every year looks bad on a résumé and will hurt your chances of being hired in argumentative by jamaica kincaid, the future. Armed with this advice, know that every field/major requires a different focus on what to highlight in a résumé, particularly with regards to skillsets. Argumentative Essay By Jamaica Kincaid! Asking a professor for an example of her/his résumé would provide a good foundation to start with. Additionally, the following samples offer a glimpse at what a solid résumé would look like.

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fireftp resume The File Transfer Protocol has held up remarkably well over the years. The protocol was first standardized in the early 1970's decades before most networks were protected by strict firewalls that drop incoming packets first, ask questions later. The FTP was designed for an environment where clients and servers interact with each other with a minimum of restriction. Additionally, the FTP was designed to essay by jamaica operate over communications channels where packets travel directly to their destination, and not in todays environment where there may be a transparent intermediary that is responsible for sending the packets to essay and from a host on a private network. The primary problems that the FTP poses to firewalls, NAT devices, and argumentative by jamaica kincaid, load-balancing devices (all of which will simply be referred to as routing devices and on girl, not routers since gateway machines generally aren't problematic) are: Additional TCP/IP connections are used for data transfers;

Data connections may be sent to random port numbers; Data connections may originate from the server to by jamaica kincaid the client, as well as originating from the order of operations client to the server; Data connections destination addresses are negotiated on the fly between the on girl client and server over the channel used for the control connection; The control connection is idle while the on drug and alcohol data transfer takes place on the data connection. The ramifications for problem (1) are that routing devices must maintain state information for the control connection where the FTP conversation between client and server takes place, and subsequent data connections. For load balancing devices especially, this means that it is imperative to send the data connections to argumentative essay kincaid the same internal server that the essay maps control connection associated with it is argumentative by jamaica being sent. For problem (2), this means that it is impossible to for FTP to work with a configuration where only a handful of on drug and alcohol well-known ports are allowed in and all other ports are denied.

Instead, both the FTP control port (21) and a large range of high-numbered ports must be allowed in. But, as a consequence of problem (1), the range of ports can be locked down for everything except use by on girl by jamaica kincaid, FTP with a little work by the routing device. For problem (3), this may mean that a restrictive routing device on the client side may cause problems for FTP. For problem (4), this requires routing devices to understand the FTP and dynamically modify the contents of the control connection so that internal server addresses are rewritten to acceptable external addresses. This also requires that the routing device maintain state information so that packets arriving at the acceptable external address are transparently re-routed to the internal server address.

For problem (5), routing devices that time out TCP/IP connections must be aware that FTP control connections can be completely inactive for lines for starting speeches hours while the argumentative essay kincaid data transfer takes place on a separate data connection. The classic example of a problem with this case is the common occurrence where a lengthy download finishes and essay maps, the client wishes to start another download, but the routing device has timed-out the essay by jamaica control connection since no activity took place for 15 minutes. And Alcohol? The client program then locks up waiting for argumentative essay the server to reply to a message it never received because the essay maps graphic routing device did not route it to on girl kincaid the server. The FTP specifies a mechanism for a default data connection, where the server can connect back to good speeches the client from port 20 to the same IP address and port number that the essay by jamaica kincaid client is originating from on the control connection. However, it really isn't feasible because the preferred transfer mode is stream mode and would require that the default data connection be reopened with each data transfer (and TCP won't let you do that until TIME_WAIT expires on the previous default data connection that has the same connection endpoints).

Therefore, all modern FTP clients negotiate with the server on where the data is sent and who initiates the connection. The client program can specify active mode by essay three branches of government, sending the PORT command to argumentative kincaid instruct that the server should connect back to essay maps graphic a specified IP address and essay on girl by jamaica kincaid, port number and then send the data. Or, a client program can choose passive mode by using the PASV command to app transfer essay community college ask that the argumentative on girl server tell the client an IP address and port number that the of operations essay client can connect to and receive the data. In a nutshell, PORT is used to have the essay on girl by jamaica kincaid server connect to the client, and PASV is used to have the common app transfer client connect to argumentative essay on girl kincaid the server. Since the client connects to the server to argumentative by jamaica kincaid establish the control connection, it would seem logical that the client should connect to the server to establish the argumentative kincaid data connection, which would imply that PASV would be preferred (and at the same time eliminate the single biggest problem with FTP and firewalls).

Mysteriously, the implementers chose to argumentative by jamaica specify in the FTP specification that PORT should be preferred and PASV need not be implemented at on girl kincaid, all by FTP client programs. At this point it might be helpful to on drug and alcohol see how the client and server are communicating for each type of data transfer. Essay On Girl? The first example is an Active session that logs in anonymously and does a single active data transfer, a directory listing. Note that a directory listings are treated as data transfers just like uploading and good, downloading of files! The biggest problem caused by FTP client programs choosing to use PORT to negotiate FTP data connections is the fact that the essay on girl kincaid server must be the connecting out back to the client's IP address. For restrictive firewalls, it is desirable to forbid all incoming connections, so using PORT would cause the connection incoming from the server to fail. Another big problem is essay by jamaica kincaid that when a client program is using network address translation to hide behind a routing device on essay by jamaica kincaid, an internal network, when using PORT the client tells a server on the external network to connect to an address on the client's internal network. I.e., from the example above:

Client: PORT 192,168,1,2,7,138. That almost always results in the routing device denying the connection, or the connection to essay on the branches of government fail completely if the on girl IP address is a RFC 1918 compliant reserved address (i.e. Of Operations Essay? 192.168.x.x, 172.16.x.x, 10.x.x.x). In either case, the argumentative essay by jamaica kincaid client user will typically experience a discarded connection that is very frustrating since the client program will just lock up until the connection is considered permanently timed-out. Solution 1 : The client user should configure their FTP client program to use PASV rather than PORT. Using passive mode may not solve the problem if there is a similar restrictive firewall on the server side.

Solution 2 : A better solution is for the network administrator of the 5 paragraph on the three branches of government client network to use high-quality network address translation software. Devices can keep track of FTP data connections, and when a client on a private network uses PORT with an internal network address, the device should dynamically rewrite the packet containing the PORT and argumentative essay kincaid, IP address and change the address so that it refers to the external IP address of the routing device. The device would then have to route the connection incoming from the remote FTP server back to the internal network address of the client. I.e., from the graphic example above we had: Client: PORT 192,168,1,2,7,138. When the packet containing this PORT reaches the argumentative essay routing device, it should be rewritten like this, assuming the external address is 17.254.0.26: Client: PORT 17,254,0,26,7,138. The remote server would then attempt to connect to 17.254.0.26:1930. The routing device in this example would then forward all traffic for on drug this connection to and from the client address at 192.168.1.2:1930. When an FTP server is behind a firewall, there can be problems when FTP clients try to use passive mode to connect to an ephemeral port number (temporary random port number) on essay on girl by jamaica, the FTP server machine.

The most common problem is when the three branches firewall the FTP server is behind is strict, i.e. the firewall allows only on girl by jamaica a few well-known port numbers in and denies access to all other ports. Solution 1 : The network administrator of the server network can configure the firewall to allow in the entire ephemeral port range. The range of ephemeral ports that need to be opened up is argumentative on girl kincaid dependent on the configuration of the server machine that is running the FTP server software -- not the ephemeral ports on the firewall! So, find out argumentative essay kincaid, how the FTP server machine has configured the ephemeral port range (whose default range varies with the operating system) and then open those ports on the firewall. Ideally, the firewall should be configured so that only that range of ports is accessible to order essay the FTP server machine. Also double check to be sure that there aren't any other TCP services with port numbers in the ephemeral port range listening on argumentative essay, the FTP server machine. Solution 2 : The network administrator of the server network can consult the firewall vendor's documentation to see if FTP connections can be dynamically monitored and ports dynamically opened when a passive FTP connection is detected. This is similar to what intelligent network address translation software can do on the client side for PORT -- the FTP control connections are monitored, and argumentative by jamaica, when a packet containing PASV from an argumentative on girl kincaid, FTP session is detected, the firewall can automatically open the port. Using our PASV example above, when the FTP server replies to the PASV request: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,3,4,204,173)

The firewall would then parse the request and find that the on drug client will be instructed to connect to port 52397 on argumentative on girl, the address 172.16.3.4. The firewall would then add a temporary rule that would allow exactly one connection to port 52397 only from the order same IP address that the FTP control connection is connected from. The other server-side problem that can occur is when a client is trying to argumentative essay access an FTP server on an internal network protected by app transfer community, a routing device. Because a server response from PASV includes an IP address and port number, if this IP address corresponds to a private network then the client will not be able to connect to that private address. From our PASV example above, we have: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,3,4,204,173) If left unaltered, the argumentative essay kincaid client would try to connect to port 52397 on the IP address 172.16.3.4.

If the client is not on the private internal network, the client would time-out trying to connect to that address, when in 5 paragraph branches of government, reality it should be connecting to the external IP address of the routing device. Solution 1 : The network administrator of the server network can consult the argumentative essay on girl by jamaica routing device vendor's documentation to see if FTP connections can be dynamically monitored and dynamically replace the IP address specification for packets containing the PASV response. Using our PASV example above, when the FTP server replies to the PASV request: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,3,4,204,173) The routing device should rewrite the packet like this, assuming the external address is 17.254.0.91: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (17,254,0,91,204,173) The remote client would then attempt to connect to the routing device at three, 17.254.0.91:52397. The routing device in this example would then forward all traffic for this connection between the remote client and the internal FTP server at IP address 172.16.3.4.

Load-Balancing Routers can allow an administrator to expose a single IP address and delegate connections among multiple identical slave servers. Argumentative Essay? This is similar to Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID), only instead of disks the array is of TCP/IP servers. Load Balancing provides two challenges for FTP. App Transfer Essay? The first is that there are multiple connections associated with each FTP session, one control connection and by jamaica kincaid, one or more data connections. For PASV data connections to work, the load balancer must be able to essay and alcohol send the connection from the client to on girl the same slave server that is handling the control connection. The second problem, which is related to the first, is that when a slave server replies with the PASV response, the essay on girl by jamaica PASV response's IP address must be accessible to the remote client. Solution 1 : The network administrator of the server network can give each slave server a valid externally accessible IP address.

The external IP address of the load balancer could be used as the preferred address, but having each slave server have its own external IP address would allow PASV data connections to connect directly to the slave server without requiring traffic from slaves to pass through the load balancer. Essay On Girl By Jamaica? It also means that the essay on girl load balancer does not need to do any special automatic handling of essay on girl FTP. Solution 2 : The network administrator of the server network can consult the load balancing router vendor's documentation to common essay college see if FTP connections can be handled automatically so that the PASV reply is dynamically rewritten to argumentative essay kincaid contain the common essay external IP address of the load balancer. Solution 3 : If the essay routing device isn't intelligent enough to take special care of FTP sessions, but has the ability to always forward traffic from the same remote client IP address to order of operations essay the same internal server IP address, then the network administrator of the server network may be able to configure the FTP server software to spoof the essay on girl address it uses for PASV replies. For example, NcFTPd Server has an option to let you specify an IP address to use for PASV replies rather than the real IP address of the maps organizers machine. You could use this option to have NcFTPd use the external IP address of the routing device and argumentative kincaid, hope that packets sent to that address would be forwarded to the internal IP address of the FTP server machine.

The good news is that load-balancing routers are relatively new, and most vendors are aware that FTP and other protocols need special handling. So, it is highly likely that FTP traffic can be farmed out from the load balancer with configuration of the load balancer. Cases do arise where there is a restrictive firewall on both the client side and server side. Again, a restrictive firewall is essay on drug one whose policy is to deny everything except for traffic between a few well-known ports. Essay On Girl By Jamaica Kincaid? When this happens, a client user cannot use PORT because the FTP server cannot connect back to the client program listening ephemeral port number, and a client user cannot use PASV because the client program cannot connect to the FTP server software listening on an ephemeral port number.

Obviously, something has to give, but if possible the server-side firewall should be the one that is reconfigured. By definition, a server is providing a service , and it should make a decent effort to make itself accessible to clients. It also makes sense to fix the order of operations essay server side once rather than have to fix each individual client-side firewall. Someday, all devices doing network address translation will have built-in special handling of FTP sessions so PORT can be used, and someday all firewalls will have built-in special handling of argumentative essay kincaid FTP sessions so PASV can be used too. A growing number of routing devices have automatic special handling of FTP sessions, but if you run an FTP server on a port other than 21 then your device is likely to not know to perform that special handling. Therefore if you must use a non-standard port number then it is imperative that you configure your routing device so that your port number is treated as an FTP service with special handling. Even if the server-side network's routing device is configured for that special handling, problems could still arise on the client side! Some firewalls require that FTP data connections from the essay on drug server originate from essay on girl kincaid, port 20, which is the on the three branches of government standard port number for FTP data connections. If your FTP server is argumentative essay kincaid running on non-standard port N , it is required by the FTP specification that its data connections originate from maps graphic organizers, port N - 1. Argumentative On Girl Kincaid? Client-side firewalls may deny these connections, so beware.

Routing devices have long been inappropriately deleting TCP/IP connections that they manage, mostly because they place greater restrictions on connections than does the TCP/IP protocol itself. For example, a TCP/IP connection with no outstanding acknowledgments pending is allowed to be idle indefinitely, unless one or both ends of the connection agree to essay community college use TCP/IP Keep Alive probes. If Keep Alive probes are not enabled, a TCP/IP connection is permanently open and available for sending and receiving until it is closed, or reset (for example, when one end's host machine is rebooted). Since a routing device is often responsible for managing many internal host machines' TCP/IP connections, it needs to place reasonable limits on the number of connections it is managing. Therefore, it will try to reclaim connections when it can, and a common way to do this is to put an essay on girl kincaid, activity timer on the connection and delete connections when the timer shows that the connection has been idle for a long period of time. Unfortunately, when a connection is timed-out, the routing device typically drops incoming packets for it if the connection tries to resume activity.

When that happens, the sending host's client program will then lock up until it times-out. If the routing device were kind enough to send back a reply to the sending host with an error message, rather than dropping the packets and of operations, ignoring the sending host, the client program could immediately err-out rather than time-out after a considerable delay. Since the FTP protocol uses two connections, a control connection for argumentative essay kincaid communicating with the client, and another connection to transfer data, there is essay maps twice the probability of getting timed-out by an impatient firewall. The most common instance of this problem occurs comes into play during a long file transfer. When a transfer is initiated (on the control connection), the control connection is idle until the transfer (on the argumentative on girl by jamaica kincaid data connection) finishes. If the routing device does not special case for essay on drug the FTP protocol and essay on girl by jamaica kincaid, the data connection takes longer than the routing device's idle timeout, then the control connection will be timed out. This is a significant problem since the client program may wish to continue using the FTP session, such as downloading additional files.

Even if the client program is planning on ending the essay and alcohol session, the FTP requires that the argumentative on girl client program send a message (QUIT) to the server indicating that the connection should be closed, and the server is and alcohol then required to reply with another message indicating that the session is officially closed. The ramifications are that the client program could then lock up waiting for a reply to a QUIT message that the argumentative on girl by jamaica kincaid server will not receive since the firewall timed-out the essay on drug session, unbeknownst to by jamaica both client and server. The solution for this specific case, which some, but not all, FTP client programs do, is to app transfer essay college either place a very short time-out on the reply to the QUIT message, or to simply close its end of the FTP session (which violates the FTP protocol, but is de facto behavior and is generally accepted). The general solution for this problem is that the routing device needs to special-case the FTP protocol, and when there is activity on a FTP session's data connection, it must mark the FTP session's control connection as active, in addition to marking the data connection as active. Unfortunately, as of this writing, this solution is argumentative by jamaica not widely implemented. Another solution is to enable the organizers TCP/IP Keep Alive feature on the control connection. Argumentative On Girl By Jamaica Kincaid? When this is essay maps graphic organizers enabled by an application program such as an essay on girl, FTP client or server program, if the connection has been idle for a preset time, the TCP/IP stack will automatically send a heartbeat message to the other end's TCP/IP stack, and if no reply is received, the connection will be properly timed-out at the TCP stack on the host machine, rather than at the firewall. Order Essay? The problem with this is that due to on girl by jamaica kincaid legacy behavior of the TCP/IP protocol (which is decades old, remember!) the default time before sending the Keep Alive probes is often set to several hours! So, under default conditions, the connection would have to essay be idle for several hours before the on girl by jamaica TCP stack would send out its heartbeat message, which is on girl not realistic considering the essay by jamaica default idle timeout for routing devices is often under 15 minutes. For the Keep Alive feature to community work under realistic conditions then, it must be configured to start sending the probes before the routing device's idle time out essay by jamaica kincaid, kicks in.

For example, if a firewall is configured to discard idle connections after 15 minutes, you would want your Keep Alive probes to be sent after 10 minutes of inactivity. If the connection is really timed out, it won't receive a reply to the heartbeat message and will then be properly closed by the TCP stack, and if a heartbeat reply is received, the firewall will (should!) mark the connection as no longer idle. As long as one side of the FTP session enables Keep Alive and has the heartbeat timer configured to argumentative on girl a sensible value, this problem should be solved. On Girl By Jamaica? But surprisingly, it is usually not trivial to configure the heartbeat timer, if it is configurable at all. Typically, it is required to tune the essay maps operating system's kernel or TCP stack. Application programs can only enable Keep Alive mode, but not specify when it should be triggered. Therefore, unless the operating system provides a mechanism to configure the argumentative on girl by jamaica timer and the system administrator of the common essay community machine running the application program has bothered to configure the timer, a program enabling Keep Alive mode is unlikely to solve the problem. We've shown that the essay by jamaica File Transfer Protocol can be a difficult beast to essay maps graphic organizers tame in the presence of advanced networking hardware.

We will leave you with a brief list of guidelines, but realize that for FTP to work smoothly you will most likely need to expend considerable effort on configuration or considerable cash on hardware that is FTP aware. Use passive (PASV) mode from within your FTP client whenever possible. If you can login to an FTP server, but your directory listings and data transfers time-out you most likely have a firewall in the way. For best results with firewalls or connections involving private network addresses, use intelligent routing devices that know to automatically take special care of FTP sessions. On Girl By Jamaica Kincaid? FTP servers require large numbers of ephemeral ports that must be externally accessible by clients. Since many FTP clients (and Web browsers) still do not default to passive mode, FTP data connections will fail unless ephemeral ports on the client machine are remotely accessible.

All Rights Reserved. This is on drug and alcohol revision 1.1.1 (April 18, 2005) of this document.